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ArticleName Structure forming during WAAM and L-DED processes using wire produced from Al – Mg alloys with transition metals by electromagnetic crystallization
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2023.07.06
ArticleAuthor Konkevich V. Yu., TimofeevV. N., Usynina G. P., Belotserkovets V. V.

V. Yu. Konkevich (1951–2022)


RPC of Magnetic Hydrodynamics Ltd, Krasnoyarsk, Russia ; Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

V. N. Timofeev, Director1, Head of the Department of Electrotechnics and Electrical Engineering2, Doctor of Technical Science


RPC of Magnetic Hydrodynamics Ltd, Krasnoyarsk, Russia:
G. P. Usynina, Principal Materials Scientist, e-mail:


All-Russia Institute of Light Alloys, Moscow, Russia:
V. V. Belotserkovets, Head of the Metallophysical Laboratory, Candidate of Technical Science


The Siberian Centre of Magnetic Hydrodynamics in Krasnoyarsk has been developing the production of wire out of ingots of the Al – Mg – Transition Metals (TM) system produced by electromagnetic crystallization, for application in additive manufacturing. Porosity and microstructure are two critical characteristics of additive manufactured items that govern their crystallization cracking and mechanical properties. Thus, the authors used WAAM (Welding Arc Additive Manufacturing) and L-DED (Laser Direct Energy Deposition) techniques with Al – Mg – TM alloy wire to carry out a comparative analysis of structures that formed in additive manufactured items. 1.2 mm wire was produced out of 12 mm long-length round ingots based on ElmaCast technology, which ensures the cooling rate of more than 1,000 K/sec (which is comparable with RS/PM technology). With the help of this technique, one can use long-length ingots with the diameter of 12 mm to produce wire of a desired cross section for further use in additive manufacturing. As ingots cast into the electromagnetic mould have no oxide spots, solid non-metallic inclusions or porosity due to a unique effect of high-frequency electromagnetic field in which the melt is present, the resulting wire is free from casting defects. The ingots are not subjected to pressing or rolling, so they inherit no defects that can be detected in items subjected to such forming processes. The ultimate strength of the wire in view is 453–485 MPa. When using the WAAM technique, the microhardness rises almost 1.5 times at the annealing temperature of 350 oC in the course of 2 hours due to dispersion hardening. Analysis of the two additive manufacturing techniques (WAAM and L-DED) shows a significant difference between the crystallization conditions. The L-DED specimens demonstrate better quality of surface and microstructure, which have almost no porosity compared with the WAAM technique. It was established that for a uniform grain structure to form during crystallization of layers, wire high-alloyed with transition metals should be used.

Support for this research was provided under Grant No. 22-19-00128 by the Russian Science Foundation,

keywords Additive manufacturing, aluminium alloys, wire, transition metals, electromagnetic crystallization, microstructure, porosity, grain structure evolution

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