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ArticleName Ways to cover the raw material demand in the copper-nickel sector
DOI 10.17580/or.2022.02.06
ArticleAuthor Krupnov L. V., Midyukov D. O., Malakhov P. V.

PJSC «MMC «Norilsk Nickel», Polar Division (Norilsk, Russia):

Krupnov L. V., Chief Metallurgist, Candidate of Engineering Sciences,
Midyukov D. O., Chief Specialist,
Malakhov P. V., Chief Specialist,


The variety of metals used has become one of the most evident indicators of the economic development level of any society. The demand for primary metals is constantly growing, which is increasing the respective environmental footprint. In recent decades, the demand has been rising so fast that it is already safe to assume certain risks associated with the potential depletion of non-ferrous metal deposits. The common features of the mining and metallurgical industries of the world and of the Russian Federation, specifically, include more stringent requirements to ore concentrate grades and more extensive processing of lower-grade refractory ores with complex mineral and material compositions, characterized by similar processing properties of their constituent minerals and fine dissemination of mineral complexes. When combined, these factors raise increased concerns as to the availability of minerals to cover the industry demand. The current ore replenishment rates are well behind the requirements of the metallurgical industry, which is a serious challenge given the ever-increasing industrial demand for non-ferrous, rare, and precious metals. Ore depletion affects both ore processing and metallurgical plants, calling for larger-scale development of mineral processing wastes and stronger recycling efforts. This, in turn, forces metallurgical companies to adapt their major metallurgical fleets to fit the new, non-typical raw materials, while using the best and most environmentally sound solutions.

keywords Available mineral resources, mineral wealth, integrated management, low-energy raw materials, flash smelting furnace (FSF), Vanyukov furnace, accretion

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