Journals →  CIS Iron and Steel Review →  2021 →  #1 →  Back

Economics and Finances
ArticleName Labour productivity in the metallurgical industries of Russian Federation and the USA in 2010–2018
DOI 10.17580/cisisr.2021.01.16
ArticleAuthor E. Yu. Sidorova, N. N. Nikulin, N. O. Vikhrova, V. Yu. Ershova

Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation (Moscow, Russia):

E. Yu. Sidorova, Dr. Econ., Prof., e-mail:


National University of Science and Technology “MISiS” (Moscow, Russia):
N. N. Nikulin, Dr. Econ., Prof., Economics Dept., e-mail:
N. O. Vikhrova, Cand. Econ., Associate Prof., Economics Dept., e-mail:
V. Yu. Ershova, Cand. Econ., Associate Prof., Economics Dept., e-mail:


The paper considers the problems of comparison of productivity levels in the metallurgical industries of Russian Federation and the USA. The authors show that the existing methods of productivity measuring in any economical area can’t answer the question about the concrete factors influencing on differences in productivity levels. The assertion that all these differences are stipulated by the differences in the level of capital-labour ratio is substantiated of the example of the metallurgical industries of Russian Federation and the USA. The added value parameter is the base for joint measuring of productivity in this case; the authors think that it provides more exact measuring of produced value amount at the concrete enterprise or in the concrete industry in comparison with natural parameters or proceeds in cash per one employee. The article also substantiates the assertion that comparison of produced value in different countries and in different currencies respectively, in order to lead to the united value assessment in USD, requires to use the market exchange rate, not parity rate.

keywords Metallurgical industry, labour productivity, added value, capital-labour ratio, basic capital, exchange rate, correlation, least square method

1. Bakatina D., Duvieusart J.-P., Klintsov V., Krogmann K., Remes J., Shvakman I., Solzhenitsyn Y. et al. Lean Russia: Sustaining economic growth through improved productivityю McKinsey Global Institute, 2009. p. 48.
2. Two kinds of labour. URL: (reference date 10.05.2020).
3. Does the labour productivity in Russian metallurgy correspond to global standards? – URL: (reference date 20.04.2020).
4. What’s common between production of hamburgers and metallurgy? Proizvoditelnost. RF. 2019. December. No. 3. URL:Журнал_Производительность.РФ_3.pdf (reference date 21.05.2020)
5. Development strategy of the Russian iron and steel industry on 2014-20 and perspectively until 2030. URL: (reference date 15.05.2020)
6. Petrova Yu. How do they work and earn in the largest Russian companies. The rating on labour productivity and payroll fund. URL: (reference date 11.05.2020)
7. Metallurgy: Russian leaders on labour productivity. URL:
8. Federal center of competencies in the field of labour productivity. Russian industrial leaders 2019. Nomination “Top 70”. URL: (дата обращения 21.05.2020)
9. Zhdankin N. A., Romanycheva S. K. Tendencies of varying the real labour productivity in metallurgy. Metallurg. 2016. No. 3. pp. 11–17.
10. World Development Indicators (WDI). URL: (reference date 21.05.2020)
11. Level of GDP per capita and productivity. URL: (reference date 21.05.2020)
12. All-Russian prize “Labour productivity: Russian industrial leaders 2020”. URL: (reference date 21.05.2020)
13. Zaitsev A. A. Labour productivity in the Russian processing industries: dynamics and comparison between countries. Ekonomicheskaya nauka sovremennoy Rossii. 2015. No. 4 (71). pp. 123–138.
14. International Comparison Program (ICP). URL: (reference date 25.05.2020).
15. Bessonov V. A., Gimpelson V. E., Kuzminov Ya. I., Yasin E. G. Labour productivity and factors of long-term development of the Russian economy. The report for the April conference in the High School of Economics. М.: Izdatelskiy don NIU VShE. 2009. 66 p.
16. NLMK 2018 Annual Report. URL: (reference date 21.05.2020).
17. NLMK. Fundamental analysis of shares. URL: (reference date 25.05.2020)
18. Lieberman M. B., Johnson D. R. Comparative productivity of Japanese and U.S. steel producers, 1958-1993. Japan and the World Economy. 1999. No. 11. pp. 1–27. URL:
19. Interactive Access to Industry Economic Accounts Data: GDP by Industry. URL: (reference date 21.05.2020).
20. Current Employment Statistics (Establishment Data): Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail, seasonally adjusted. URL: (reference date 21.05.2020)
21. Financial book-keeping reports of NLMK Kaluga JSC URL:
22. Hydrogen. The element and its importance for steelmaking and the dawn of a sustainable future. STIL. The Salzgitter Magazine. URL:
23. Germany’s ThyssenKrupp to build DRI plant run on hydrogen for green steel production. URL:
24. Green Hydrogen Investment and Support Report. Hydrogen Europe’s input for a post COVID-19 recovery plan. URL:
25. Vikhrova N. Recycling aluminium waste within the «circular» economy paradigm. International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geo-Conference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM, 2019. URL:
26. Sidorova E. Modern strategic decisions in the field of waste as a basis of development of circular economy and greening of industrial production. International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geo Conference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM, 2019. URL:
27. Sidorova, E. The main factors and conditions determining the feasibility of production of high-tech products based on the potential of applied research organizations. International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM, 2019. URL:
28. Samarina V. P., Skufina T. P., Kostyukhin Yu. Yu., Savon D. Yu. Relationship between iron ore deposits and spread of heavy metals in shallow water rivers: Natural and man-caused factors. CIS Iron and Steel Review. 2020. Vol. 19. pp. 75–80.
29. Kostyukhin Yu. Yu., Savon D. Yu. Improving steel market performance indicators in the face of increased competition. Chernye metally. 2020. No. 4. pp. 68–72.
30. Chernikova A. A., Samarina V. P., Poleva N. A. Efficiency of activity of the Russian iron and steel producers in the global market. Fundamentalnye issledovaniya. 2015. No. 6–3. pp. 643–647. URL: (reference data: 07.06.2020).

Full content Labour productivity in the metallurgical industries of Russian Federation and the USA in 2010–2018