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ArticleName Investigation of the effect of temperature conditions of the slag depletion process on the coalescence of metal phase particles
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2024.05.02
ArticleAuthor Bogatyrev D. M., Novozhilova O. S., Tsymbulov L. B., Ozerov S. S.

LLC Gipronickel Institute, Saint Petersburg, Russia

D. M. Bogatyrev, Researcher at the Pyrometallurgy Laboratory, e-mail:
O. S. Novozhilova, Junior Researcher at the Pyrometallurgy Laboratory, e-mail:
L. B. Tsymbulov, Director of the Research and Development Department, Correspondent Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, e-mail:
S. S. Ozerov, Lead Researcher at the Pyrometallurgy Laboratory, Candidate of Technical Sciences, e-mail:


Proactive efforts are currently undertaken to develop new methods of pyrometallurgical depletion of copper and copper-nickel slags. In particular, these technologies include melting in a two-zone Vanyukov furnace, as well as a complex of continuous conversion of copper matte. These technologies involve depletion under reducing conditions, which results in the production of a metal alloy as a bottom product. In this regard, an urgent task is to determine the aggregate state of the resulting alloy, as well as its effect on the loss of metals with slags. In addition, it is required to determine the optimal temperature conditions for conducting reduction smelting of slags, ensuring minimal losses of metals with dump slags. The research methodology consisted in conducting reduction smelting of an iron silicate melt with copper and nickel oxides dissolved in it in bubbling conditions at various temperatures. The liquidus temperature of the produced alloys has a high convergence with the data presented in previously published papers. The size and chemical composition of inclusions of metallic phases, as well as the chemical composition of the silicate component of slags, were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectral microanalysis (SEM – X-ray SMA), which made it possible to calculate the distribution of shapes of non-ferrous metal lossed with slag. Based on measurements of the size of metal shots, the authors built a histogram of the distribution of metal inclusions by size in the region of temperatures under study. The value of the equivalent size of metal shots was established at different temperatures. The authors identified the trend in increasing the size of the suspended metal particles in the melt volume with increasing process temperature. Using the Stokes formula, the deposition rate of metal shots of equivalent size was calculated at different temperatures. Based on the conducted research, the authors give recommendations on the optimal temperature parameters for conducting reduction pyrometallurgical processes.

keywords Reduction processes, coalescence, copper, nickel, slag depletion, Vanyukov furnace, shapes of losses, slag

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