Journals →  Chernye Metally →  2024 →  #4 →  Back

Foundry production
ArticleName Material for manufacture of disposable lost patterns in production of cast iron castings
DOI 10.17580/chm.2024.04.03
ArticleAuthor I. O. Leushin, L. I. Leushina, O. S. Koshelev, P. A. Gorokhov

Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University named after R. E. Alekseev, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

I. O. Leushin, Dr. Eng., Prof., Head of the Dept. of Metallurgical Technologies and Equipment, e-mail:
L. I. Leushina, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., Dept. of Metallurgical Technologies and Equipment, e-mail:
O. S. Koshelev, Dr. Eng., Prof., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Technological Complexes, e-mail:
P. A. Gorokhov, Postgraduate Student, Dept. of Metallurgical Technologies and Equipment, e-mail:


Lost foam casting is one of the most popular special types of casting, in which the material of a nonremovable disposable casting pattern is gasified under influence of the thermal energy of the metal poured into the pattern, coming into direct contact with it. Traditionally, polystyrene foam is used as a material for casting patterns, which has such disadvantages as intense gas evolution upon contact with a metal melt and a high probability of surface defects appearing on castings due to the deposition on the pattern walls of a large amount of sooty coke residue formed as a result of pattern gasification. The authors focus on the issue of choosing the optimal composition for the manufacture of disposable lost patterns applicable in the production of machine parts workpieces from cast iron by casting. The basic requirements for the material of the patterns were formulated, an informational and analytical review of the state of the issue was carried out, the most probable chemical reactions of thermal destruction of some polyplastics were analyzed, experimental studies and pilot testing of the results obtained in the conditions of the existing foundry were carried out. For the manufacture of disposable lost patterns in cast iron production, a material is proposed that is a composition of polypropylene, polymethyl methacrylate and a foaming agent. It does not contain scarce and expensive components, is characterized by high manufacturability, enables to produce patterns in a short time with minimal labor intensity and ensure the production of high-quality castings in terms of structure, mechanical properties of cast iron, surface defects and gas porosity without deteriorating the working conditions of production personnel.

keywords Lost foam casting, cast iron, casting, foam plastic, composition, polystyrene, polypropylene, polymethyl methacrylate

1. Stepanov Yu. A. et al. Casting using lost foam patterns: fundamentals of theory and technology. Moscow : Mashinostroenie, 1976. 224 p.
2. Shulyak V. S. Lost foam casting. Saint Petersburg : Professional, 2007. 408 p.
3. Greß T. Dünnwandiger stahlguss-realisierung einer großserientauglichen prozesskette für den automobilbau. Giesserei. 2020. Vol. 1. ss. 83.
4. Yakovyshin O. A. Resource-saving technology for manufacturing lost patterns for foundry production. Ekologiya i promyshlennost. 2019. No. 2 (59). pp. 24–33.
5. Kaliuzhnyi P., Doroshenko V., Neima O. Casting of combined polymer patterns that are gasified. Casting processes. 2023. Vol. 1, Iss. 2. P. 49–55.
6. Leushin I. O., Leushina L. I., Koshelev O. S., Gorokhov P. A. Production of thin-walled cast iron castings of frame-cellular and ordered honeycomb structures. Chernye Metally. 2023. No. 9. pp. 95–98.
7. Morozov V. A. Some issues of steel casting technology using lost patterns. Liteynoe proizvodstvo. 2016. No. 1. pp. 32–35.
8. Vollformgießverfahren für die serien fertigung von hochkomplexen gussteilen. (GSL GussStahl Lienen). Available at: (accessed: 14.12.2023).
9. Hensold S. Yum abheben: 3-D-druck und feinguss für aerospace-anwendungen. Giesserei. 2023. Vol. 5. ss. 82–85.
10. Gurulev S. A. Process of carburization of cast iron and steel castings during lost foam casting. Liteynoe proizvodstvo. 1980. No. 6. pp. 21–22.
11. Gurulev S. A. Traces in cast iron. Khimiya i zhizn. 2007. No. 6. pp. 18–19.
12. Sokolov A. F. et al. Composition for lost pattern manufacture. Certificate of authorship USSR, No. 500870. Published: 30.01.1976.
13. Cherepakhov N. Kh. et al. Pattern composition for lost foam casting. Certificate of authorship USSR, No. 426742. Published: 02.10.1974.
14. Polypropylene (PP). Properties guide and application overview. Available at: (accessed: 13.12.2023).
15. EPOLYMER.RU: Portal of the polymer industry. Polypropylene (reference information). Available at: (accessed: 13.12.2023).
16. Menold P., Cölfen H., Stubenrauch C. Mineral plastic foams. Available at. Materials Horizons. 2021. Vol. 8, Iss. 4. P. 1222–1229.
17. Modulor: Kunststoffe. Polymethylmethacrylat (PMMA). Available at: (accessed: 14.12.2023).
18. GOST 26996–86. Polypropylene and copolymers of propylene. Specifications. Introduced: 01.01.1988.
19. Technical Specification (TU) 2216-243-05757593–2000. “Dacryl-8” brand polymethylacrylate for automotive parts. Introduced: 01.02.2001.
20. Technical Specification (TU) 6-05-2001–85. Polyvinyl chloride foaming concentrate of the Penocon-PVC-K brand.
21. GOST 1412–85. Flake graphite iron for castings. Grades. Introduced: 01.01.1987.
22. Technical Specification (TU) 4191-001-151102120–2012. PPU-1 non-stick coating.
23. GOST 2138–91. Molding sands. General specifications. Introduced: 01.01.1993.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy