Journals →  Tsvetnye Metally →  2023 →  #8 →  Back

Marking the 250th anniversary of the Empress Catherine II St Petersburg Mining University and the 20th anniversary of the Nanophysics & Nanomaterials International Conference
ArticleName Analyzing the degree of metallic state and innovative properties of crystalline PbSb2Te4 obtained by Czochralski method
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2023.08.12
ArticleAuthor Nemov S. A., Povolotskiy A. V., Andreeva V. D., Kushchenko A. N., Mukharaeva I. Yu.

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg, Russia1  ; Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University LETI, Saint Petersburg, Russia2:

S. A. Nemov, Professor at the Higher School of Physics and Materials Engineering1, Professor at the Department of Photonics2, Doctor of Physics & Mathematics Science, e-mail:


Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg, Russia:

V. D. Andreeva, Associate Professor at the Higher School of Physics and Materials Engineering1, Candidate of Technical Science, e-mail:


Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia:
A. V. Povolotskiy, Deputy Director of the Resource Centre, Candidate of Physics & Mathematics Science, e-mail:

Empress Catherine II Saint Petersburg Mining University, Saint Petersburg, Russia:
A. N. Kushchenko, Assistant Lecturer at the Department of General and Technical Physics, Candidate of Technical Science, e-mail:
I. Yu. Mukharaeva, Assistant Lecturer at the Department of General and Technical Physics, Candidate of Physics & Mathematics Science, e-mail:


Pb – Sb – Te compositions are widely used in non-ferrous metallurgy and in today’s materials science. They are also used in lead-antimony alloys. By introducing different doping agents into alloys, one can achieve enhanced mechanical, thermophysical and other physical properties, necessary in practical application. Recent years have seen a risen interest to the PbSb2Te4 compound, which can potentially be used as a thermoelectric material, for designing spintronics instruments and as a topological insulator. The available literature is lacking information on certain aspects that have to do with the design of PbSb2Te4-base materials with pre-defined properties. For example, it is not clear if PbSb2Te4 has conductivity that is typical of metals and how justified it would be to consider that compound a metal by pointing at its electrophysical properties. This paper describes and analyzes the results of X-ray structural and physical studies of PbSb2Te4 crystals grown based on Czochralski method. The peculiar phase composition of these crystals accounts for the inconsistent results of studies that looked at their electrophysical and optical properties. The optical band gap was estimated. Based on their electrophysical properties, the studied crystals are something between classical metals and semiconductors. They are characterized with a nonzero electrical conductivity and a concentration of current carriers (holes) at low (Т ≈ 77 К) temperatures. Their temperature dependence of conductivity is of metal nature and they are poorly alloyable in the narrow range of hole concentrations. Thanks to their own point electrically active defects, the samples have a high hole concentration (p ≈ 3.2·1020 cm–3) from the Hall effect data. At the same time, this compound has a small band gap (around 0.24 eV), which is typical of semiconductors.

keywords Lead-antimony alloys, Pb – Sb – Te, Pb – Sb – Te – Cu systems, alloying, nanoinclusions, structure, properties, metal conductivity

1. Dunaev Yu. D. Insoluble anodes made of lead alloys. Alma-Ata : Nauka Kazakhskoy SSR, 1978. 316 p.
2. Mineev G. G., Mineeva T. S., Zhuchkov I. A., Zelinskaya E. V. Theory of metallurgical processes. Irkutsk : Izdatelstvo IrGTU, 2010. 524 p.
3. Mulloeva N. M., Ganeev I. N. Alloys of lead with alkaline earth metals. Dushanbe : Andaleb-R, 2015. 168 p.
4. Khudeyberdizoda S. U. Effect of copper and tellurium additions on the physical and chemical properties of lead and lead-antimony alloy SSu3: Extended abstract of PhD dissertation. Dushanbe : Institut khimii im. V. I. Nikitina NAN Tadzhikistana, 2022. 28 p.

5. Nurmamat M., Okamoto K., Siyuan Zhu et al. Topologically nontrivial phase-change compound GeSb2Te4ACS Nano. 2020. Vol. 14, Iss. 7. pp. 9059–9065.
6. Wang J.-J., Zhang H.-M., Wang X.-D. et. al. In-plane twinning defects in hexagonal GeSb2Te4Advanced Materials Technology. 2022. Vol. 7. 2200214.
7. Ganiev I. N., Aminbekova M. S., Navruzov Kh. P., Eshov B. B., Mulloeva M. M. Effect of zinc additions on the temperature dependence of thermal capacity and on the changing thermodynamic functions of the lead-antimony alloy SSu3. Bulletin of the Siberian State Industrial University. 2023. Vol. 43, No. 1. pp. 50–58.
8. Niezov O. Kh., Ganiev I. N., Safarov A. G., Mulloeva N. M., Yakubov U. Sh. Temperature dependence of thermal capacity and the changing thermodynamic functions of the lead alloy SSu3 with calcium. Bulletin of the South Ural State University. Series Metallurgy. 2019. Vol. 19, No. 3. pp. 33–43.
9. Ganiev I. N., Niezov O. Kh., Safarov A. G., Mulloeva N. M. Effect of strontium on the thermal capacity and the changing thermodynamic functions of the lead alloy SSu3. Bulletin of the Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technical University). 2018. No. 47 (73). pp. 36–42.
10. Rusina G. G., Borisova S. D., Chulkov E. V. The atomic structure and phonons of an ultrathin Pb film at the surface of Al (100). JETP Letters. 2014. Vol. 100, No. 4. pp. 261–266.
11. Silkin I. V. et al. Three- and two-dimensional topological insulators in Pb2Sb2Te5, Pb2Bi2Te5, and Pb2Bi2Se5 layered compounds. JETP Letters. 2011. Vol. 94, Iss. 3. pp. 217–221.
12. Ikeda T. et al. Solidification processing of alloys in the pseudo-binary PbTe – Sb2Te3 system. Acta Materialia. 2007. Vol. 55, Iss. 4. pp. 1227–1239.
13. Shelimova L. E. et al. Synthesis and structure of layered compounds in the PbTe – Bi2Te3 and PbTe – Sb2Te3 systems. Inorganic Materials. 2004. Vol. 40, Iss. 12. pp. 1264–1270.
14. Ikeda T. et al. A combinatorial approach to microstructure and thermopower of bulk thermoelectric materials: the pseudo-ternary PbTe – Ag2Te –Sb2Te3 system. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2012. Vol. 22, Iss. 46. 24335.
15. Papikyan A. et al. Thermoelectric and memristor features of the Sb2Te3/Sb2S3/Sb2Te3 and Ag/Sb2Te3/Ag structures. Fizika i tekhnika poluprovodnikov. 2022. Vol. 56, Iss. 3. pp. 370–375.
16. Usmanskiy Ya. S. et al. Crystallography, roentgenography and electron microscopy. Moscow : Metallurgiya, 1982. 632 p.
17. DIFFRACplus TOPAS, Technical Reference. DOC-M88-EXX066, V4.2-01.2009. Bruker AXS GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany.
18. Bublik V. T. et al. Analysis of anisotropy of properties on the basis of stu dies of texture of coarse-grained ingots of thermoelectric materials. Inorganic Materials. 2011. Vol. 47, No. 14. pp. 1563–1568.
19. Domashevskaya E. P., Bashkov I. V. et al. Obtaining and determining the composition and thermoelectric properties of ternary solid solutions of (BixSb1–x)2Te. Condensed Matter and Interphases. 2014. Vol. 16, No. 4. pp. 406–417.
20. Nemov S. A. et al. The valence zone structure in PbSb2Te4 and anisotropy of hole relaxation time. Physics of Complex Systems. 2021. Vol. 2, Iss. 4. pp. 165–171.
21. Evang V. et al. Thermally controlled charge-carrier transitions in di sordered PbSbTe chalcogenides. Advanced Materials. 2022. Vol. 34, Iss. 3. 2106868.
22. New Materials. Preparation, properties and applications in the aspect of nanotechnology. New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2020. 249 p.
23. Applied Aspects of Nano-Physics and Nano-Engineering. New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2019. 308 p.
24. Klimov V. V. Nanoplasmonics. Moscow : FIZMATLIT, 2010. 480 p.
25. Wang L.-L. Highly tunable band inversion in AB2 X4 (A = Ge, Sn, Pb; B = As, Sb, Bi; X = Se, Te) compounds. Physical Review Materials. 2022. Vol. 6, Iss. 9. 094201.
26. Brichkin V. N., Vorobiev A. G., Bazhin V. Y. Mining Institute’s metallurgists: a tradition serving the country, science and production industry. Tsvetnye Metally. 2020. No. 10. pp. 4–13.
27. Popova A. N., Klimenkov B. D., Grabovskiy A. Yu. Mining University’s plasma nanotechnology and energy school. Izvestiya VUZ. Applied Nonlinear Dynamics. 2021. Vol. 29, No. 2. pp. 317–336.
28. Syrkov A. G., Yachmenova L. A. Features of obtaining metallurgical products in the solid-state hydride synthesis conditions. Journal of Mining Institute. 2022. Vol. 256. pp. 651–662.
29. Tomaev V. V., Syrkov A. G., Sychov M. M. et al. Development of scientific fundamentals for the conversion of a virtual binary lead selenide ferroelectric into a real ferroelectric of lead selenite for physico-chemical sensors. Materials Science Forum. 2021. Vol. 1040. pp. 75–86.
30. Tomaev V. V. Control over the properties of composite nanomaterials made with chalcogenides, oxides and halogenides of lead, tin and silver. Proceedings of the Nanophysics & Nanomaterials International Conference. Saint Petersburg : Sankt-Peterburgskiy gornyi universitet, 2022. pp. 293–298.
31. Lutskiy D. S., Ignatovich A. S. Understanding the hydrometallurgical recovery of copper and rhenium when processing off-grade copper concentrates. Journal of Mining Institute. 2021. Vol. 251. P. 723–729. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.5.11
32. Baake E., Shpenst V. A. Recent scientific research on electrothermal metallurgical processes. Journal of Mining Institute. 2019. Vol. 240. pp. 660–668.
33. Cheremisina E., Cheremisina O., Ponomareva M., Bolotov V., Fedorov A. Kinetic features of the hydrogen sulfide sorption on the ferro-manganese material. Metals. 2021. Vol. 11. P. 90. DOI: 10.3390/met11010090
34. Smerdov R. S., Mustafaev A. S., Spivak Yu. M. et al. Porous siliconbased nanostructures for solar concentrator systems. Applied Aspects of Nano-Physics and Nano-Engineering. New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2019. pp. 83–86.
35. Litvinova T. E., Kashurin R., Lutskiy D. Complex formation of rare-earth elements in carbonate–alkaline media. Materials. 2023. Vol. 16. P. 3140. DOI: 10.3390/ma16083140
36. Bazhin V. Y., Aryshenskii E., Hirsch J., Kawalla R. et al. Impact of Zener-Hollomon parameter on substructure and texture evolution during thermomechanical treatment of iron-containing wrought aluminium alloys. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 2019. Vol. 29, Iss. 5. P. 893–906. DOI: 10.1016/S1003-6326(19)64999-X
37. Smerdov R. S., Mustafaev A. S., Spivak Yu. M. et al. Composite nanostructured materials for plasma energetic systems. Applied Aspects of Nano-Physics and Nano-Engineering. New York : Nova Science Publishers, 2019. pp. 229–236.
38. Litvinenko V. S., Tsvetkov P. S., Dvoynikov M. V., Buslaev G. V. Barriers to implementation of hydrogen initiatives in the context of global energy sustainable development. Journal of Mining Institute. 2020. Vol. 244. pp. 428–438.
39. Kantyukov R. R., Zapevalov D. N., Vagapov R. K. Analysis of the application and impact of carbon dioxide media on the corrosion state of oil and gas facilities. Journal of Mining Institute. 2021. Vol. 250. pp. 578–586.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy