Journals →  Gornyi Zhurnal →  2023 →  #6 →  Back

ArticleName Impact of rock mass jointing on dilution of disseminated copper–nickel ore in Oktyabrsky Mine
DOI 10.17580/gzh.2023.06.03
ArticleAuthor Darbinyan T. P., Tsymbalov A. A., Zubov V. P., Kolganov A. V.

NorNickel’s Polar Division, Norilsk, Russia:

T. P. Darbinyan, Director, Department of Mining Practice, Candidate of Engineering Sciences
A. A. Tsymbalov, Deputy Director, Department of Mining Practice, Candidate of Engineering Sciences


Saint-Petersburg Mining University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia:
V. P. Zubov, Head of Mineral Mining Department, Professor, Doctor of Engineering Sciences
A. V. Kolganov, Post-Graduate Student,


Dilution of valuable elements in produced ore as against their content in in-place reserves is one of the main quality factors in ore production. The adverse effects of dilution are the wasteful expenditure connected with barren rock haulage, the worse efficiency of processing, the increased consumption of ore in production of metal, and the ore price drop. The authors discuss the causes of produced ore dilution and the trends of this relevant research and production problem solution as a case-study of disseminated ore mining in Oktyabrsky Mine in the Talnakh ore province. The research shows that the major sources of dilution of the ore produced are: backfill in the cavities caused by rock falls from the sidewalls of the first-phase stopes affected by blasting during the second-phase stoping; roof rock falling in stopes as a result of blasting-induced seismic impact. In the system of bottom-up mining of high-grade copper-bearing disseminated ore, an evident cause of rock falls from the sidewalls of the first-phase stopes is high jointing of enclosing rock mass. The main factors to influence the intensity of rock falls from the roofs and sidewalls of stopes include the dip and the cross effect of the joint sets. The probability of spontaneous fall of ore blocks between the joint sets depends to a great extent on the stope design variables. Identifying the nature of the joints which have a major influence on ore falls from sidewalls in stopes driven in earlier undermined bodies of disseminated ore requires additional field testing and processing of the results using the methods of mathematical statistics.

keywords Dilution, disseminated ore, rock mass, backfill, stope sidewall caving, joints, stope mapping, jointing stereogram

1. Nikulin I. I. (Ed.). Geology of the Norilsk Metallogeni c Province. In Honor of Norilskgeologiya’s 65th Anniversary. Moscow : MAKS Press, 2020. 524 p.
2. Marysyuk V. P., Sabyanin G. V., Trofimov A. V., Kirkin A. P. Designing blast patterns by calculation of fracture zones and ore zoning by physical and mechanical properties. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2020. No. 1. pp. 58–62. DOI: 10.17580/gzh.2020.01.11
3. Gospodarikov A. P., Kirkin A. P., Trofimov A. V., Kovalevsky V. N. Determination of physical and mechanical properties of rocks using anti-burst destress measures. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2023. No. 1. pp. 26–34. DOI: 10.17580/gzh.2023.01.04
4. Tyupin V. N. Estimation of critical depth of deposits by rock bump hazard condition. Journal of Mining Institute. 2019. Vol. 236. pp. 167–171. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.2.167
5. Moldovan D. V., Chernobay V. I., Sokolov S. T., Bazhenova A. V. Design concepts for explosion products locking in chamber. GIAB. 2022. No. 6-2. pp. 5–17.
6. Sidorov D. V., Potapchuk M. I., Sidlyar A. V., Kursakin G. A. Assessment of Rock-Burst Hazard in Deep Layer Mining at Nikolayevskoye Field. Journal of Mining Institute. 2019. Vol. 238. pp. 392–398. DOI: 10.31897/pmi.2019.4.392
7. Kaplunov D. R., Aynbinder I. I., Fedotenko V. S., Yukov V. A. Underground ore mining technologies: Current challenges, sustainable development and transition to a new technological paradigm. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2021. No. 9. pp. 4–11. DOI: 10.17580/gzh.2021.09.01
8. Golik V. I., Gabaraev O. Z., Kozhiev Kh. Kh., Gashimova Z. A. To the problem of reducing ore drilling components of hardening mixture. Izvestiya Tulskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Nauki o Zemle. 2021. No. 2. pp. 168–179.
9. Dutta S., La l A., Chittora V., Chordia L., Tailor D. Ore dilution control practised at Sindesar Khurd Mine of Hindustan Zinc Ltd. Underground Design Methods 2015: Proceedings of the International Seminar on Design Methods in Underground Mining. Perth : Australian Centre for Geomechanics, 2015. pp. 553–568.
10. Mahmoud Behnia, Masoud Cheraghi Seifabad. S tability analysis and optimization of the support system of an underground powerhouse cavern considering rock mass variability. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2018. Vol. 77, Iss. 18. 645. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-018-7835-2
11. Jendryś M. Analysis of stress state in mine shaft lining, taking into account superficial defects. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2019. Vol. 261. 012016. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/261/1/012016
12. Sabyanin G. V., Balandin V. V., Trofimov A. V., Kuzmin S. V. Geomechanical survey procedure for Oktyabrsky mine. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2020. No. 6. pp. 11–16. DOI: 10.17580/gzh.2020.06.01
13. Eremenko V. A., Aynbinder I. I., Patskevich P. G., Babkin E. A. Assessment of the state of rocks in underground mines at the Polar Division of Norilsk Nickel. GIAB. 2017. No. 1. pp. 5–17.
14. Barton N., Grimstad E. The Q-System following Twenty Years of Application in NMT Support Selection. Felsbau. 1994. Vol. 12, No. 6. pp. 428–436.
15. Using the Q-system. Rock mass classification and support design : Handbook. Oslo : NGI, 2015. 54 p.
16. Barton N., Lien R., Lunde J. Engineering Classif ication of Rock Masses for the Design of Tunnel Support. Rock Mechanics. 1974. Vol. 6, Iss. 4. pp. 189–236.
17. Rock Mass Quality Assessment Regulations for Mines of Norilsk Nickel’s Polar Division. Norilsk, 2018.
18. Xiaoming Sun, Gan Li, Chengwei Zhao, Yangyang Liu, Chengyu Miao. Investigation of Deep Mine Shaft Stability in Alternating Hard and Soft Rock Strata Using Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling. Processes. 2019. Vol. 7, Iss. 1. 2. DOI: 10.3390/pr7010002
19. Tianlong Wang, Congxin Chen, Kaizong Xia, Chuqiang Zhang, Yue Wang et al. Ground Surface Deformation in the Hanging Wall of the Jinshandian Underground Iron Mine in China. Frontiers in Earth Science. 2022. Vol. 10. 909466. DOI: 10.3389/feart.2022.909466
20. Maleki M., Emery X. Joint Simulation of Grade and Rock Type in a Stratabound Copper Deposit. Mathematical Geosciences. 2015. Vol. 47, No. 4. pp. 471–495.
21. Read J., Stacey P. Guidelines for open pit slope de sign. Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing, 2009. 487 p.
22. Fedotov G. S., Sapronova N. P. Geological and mining information systems as a tool for digital transformation of production processes in mining companies. Marksheyderya i nedropolzovanie. 2021. No. 4(114). pp. 54–59.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy