Journals →  Non-ferrous Metals →  2022 →  #2 →  Back

ArticleName Production of fine-dispersed tungstic acid
DOI 10.17580/nfm.2022.02.06
ArticleAuthor Mazulevsky E. A., Berdikulova F. A., Kovzalenko T. V., Seidakhmetova N. M.

RSE “National Center on Complex Processing of Mineral Raw Materials of the Republic of Kazakhstan”, Almaty, Kazakhstan:

E. A. Mazulevsky, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Head of the Laboratory of Pure Chemicals, e-mail:
F. A. Berdikulova, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Director of the R&D Department, e-mail:
T. V. Kovzalenko, Junior Researcher at the Laboratory of Pure Chemicals
N. M. Seidakhmetova*, PhD, Senior researcher of the Department of Scientific Research, e-mail:


*Correspondence author.


The paper presents the results of studies of fine-grained tungstic acid synthesis and research of tungsten trioxide obtained from it. A literature analysis was performed and the direction of the study was formulated. A method of precipitation of tungstic acid from sodium tungstate solutions by hydrochloric acid solution has been proposed. To produce tungstic acid, a continuous operation unit that provided the required draining rates of sodium tungstate and hydrochloric acid solutions, the temperature of draining solutions and their concentrations, was created. The dependence of the specific surface of the obtained tungstic acid on the concentration of the used hydrochloric acid was investigated, and the optimum concentration of hydrochloric acid at 430 grams per liter was determined. Using the mathematical method of simplex-planning experiments, the effect of three parameters on the specific surface area of tungstic acid — the concentration of sodium tungstate solution, the ratio of volume rates of drained solutions, and the temperature of drained solutions, was investigated. The following, close to optimum parameters have been received: concentration of sodium tungstate solution of 35–40 grams per liter, ratio of concentrated (430 g/l) hydrochloric acid to the volume of sodium tungstate solution is (1.9–2.0):1, temperature of solutions is 15–20 °С. Tungstic acid with a specific surface area of 60 m2/gram was obtained. It is determined that for the preparation of tungsten trioxide with a high specific surface area, the heating rate of tungsten acid in its drying must be 40–50 degrees per hour and the final drying temperature must be equal to 400 °C. Figures illustrating the dependence of the specific surface of the obtained tungstic acid on the concentration of sodium tungstate solution, the ratio of the volume velocities of the drained solutions and the temperature of the drained solutions are presented.

keywords Tungstic acid, tungsten trioxide, specific surface area, synthesis, precipitation, tungsten carbide

1. Kerber M. L. Composite Materials. Sorosovskiy obrazovatelnyi zhurnal. 1999. No. 5. pp. 33–41.
2. Klyuchnikova N. V., Lymar’ E. A., Yur’ev A. M. Promising Composite Materials Based on a Metal Matrix and a Non-Metallic Filler. Uspekhi Sovremennogo Estestvoznaniya. 2004. No. 2. p. 69.
3. Lyuev A. Kh., Kuchmezova F. Yu., Mamkhegova R. M., Shamparova R. A., Adamkova M. N. Obtaining Functional Structural Materials Based on Tungsten and Molybdenum Carbides. Sovremennye Naukoemkie Tekhnologii. 2014. No. 5-1. p. 72.
4. Klyuchnikova N. V., Lymar’ E. A. Structural Cermets are One of the Promising Materials of Modern Technology. Vestnik BGTU im. V. G. Shukhova. 2005. No. 9. pp. 111–114.

5. Klyuchnikova N. V., Lymar’ E. A. The Effect of Metal Filler on the Structure-Formation of Composites. Steklo i Keramika. 2005. Vol. 78, Iss. 10. pp. 19–20.
6. Markova M. A., Petrova P. N. Influence of Carbon Fibers and Composite Technologies on the Properties of Pcm Based on Polytetrafluoroethylene. Perspektivnye Materialy. 2020. No. 11. pp. 59–68.
7. Panov V. S., Chuvilin A. M., Falkovsky V. A. Technology and Properties of Sintered Hard Alloys. Moscow: Izdatelstvo MISiS, 2004. 432 p.
8. Mukhopadhyay A., Basu B. Recent Developments on WC-Based Bulk Composites. Journal of Materials Science. 2011. Vol. 46, Iss. 3. pp. 571–589.
9. Semin G. L., Dubrovsky A. R., Snytnikov P. V., Kuznetsov S. A., Sobyanin V. A. The Use of Catalysts Based on Molybdenum and Tungsten Carbides in The Reaction of Carbon Monoxide Conversion with Steam. Catalysis in Industry. 2011. No. 5. p. 44a–53.
10. Oxley J. D., Mdleleni M. M., Suslick K. S. Hydro dehalogenation with Sonochemically Prepared Мо2С and W2C. Catalysis Today. 2004. Vol. 88, №3-4. pp. 139–151.
11. York A. P. E., Clarige J. B., Marquez-Alvarez C., Brungs A. J., Tsang S. C., Green M. L. H. Synthesis of Early Transition Metal Carbides and Their Application for the Reforming of Methane to Synthesis Gas. Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Oxidation Catalysis 21–26 September 1997, San Diego, CA, U.S.A. pp. 711–720.
12. Clarige J. B., York A. P. E., Brungs A. J., Marquez-Alvares C., Sloan J., Tsang S. C., Green M. L. H. New Catalysts for Conversion of Methane to Synthesis Gas: Molybdenum and Tungsten Carbide. Journal of Catalysis. 1998. Vol. 180, Iss. 1. pp. 85–100.
13. Zeolite catalyst Composition Comprising Tungsten Carbide and Process Therefor and Therewith: Pat. US5776852A United States: IPC B01J 27/22; C07C 6/00; B01J 029/076; C07C 005/22 / A. H. Wu, C. A. Drake; Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company. № 08/826619; appl. 4.04.1997; publ. 7.07.1998.
14. Tungsten-Based Electrocatalyst and Fuel Cell Containing Same: Pat. US8057962B2 United States: IPC H01M 4/02; B01J 23/16 / J. B. Christian; assignee: Global Tungsten & Powders Corp. №10/550465; appl. 25.03.2004; publ. 15.11.2011.
15. Khadzhiev S. N., Kadiev Kh. M., Kadieva M. Kh. Synthesis and Properties of Nanosized Systems as Efficient Catalysts for Hydroconversion of Heavy Petroleum Feedstock. Petroleum Chemistry. 2014. Vol. 54, Iss. 5. pp. 323–346.
16. Smithells C. J. Tungsten. Transl. from Eng. by Kurbatov G. P. et al. Moscow: Metallurgizdat, 1958. 414 p.
17. Zelikman A. N., Crane O. E., Samsonov G. V. Metallurgy of Rare Metals. 2nd ed., rev. and suppl. Moscow: Metallurgia, 1964. 568 p.
18. Faynberg S. Yu. Analysis of Ores of Non-Ferrous Metals. 2nd ed., rev. and suppl. Мoscow: Metallurgizdat, 1953. pp. 399–400.
19. Gaidadin A. N., Efremova S. A., Nistratov A. V. Optimization Methods in Technological Practice. Volgograd: VolgGTU, 2008. 16 p.
20. Kononyuk A. E. Fundamentals of Scientific Research (General Theory of Experiment). Book 3. Kiev: Osvita Ukraini, 2012. pp. 52–58.
21. Bochkarev V. V., Troyan A. A. Optimization of Chemical and Technological Processes. Tomsk, Izdatelstvo TPU, 2014. pp. 8–12.
22. Ponomarev V. B., Loshkarev A. B. Mathematical Modeling of Technological Processes. Yekaterinburg, USTUUPI, 2006. pp. 82–89.

Full content Production of fine-dispersed tungstic acid