Journals →  Tsvetnye Metally →  2022 →  #7 →  Back

ArticleName Composition, structure and properties of the last silver rubles of the Russian Empire in 1895–1915: continuation of the Petrine traditions of coinage
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2022.07.14
ArticleAuthor Bazhin V. Yu., Gorlenkov D. V., Povarov V. G., Vedernikov V. V.

Saint Petersburg Mining University, Saint Petersburg, Russia:

V. Yu. Bazhin, Head of the Chair for Automation of Technological Processes and Production, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, e-mail:
D. V. Gorlenkov, Associate Professor, Candidate of Technical Sciences, e-mail:
V. G. Povarov, Professor, Doctor of Chemical Sciences
V. V. Vedernikov, Leading Researcher of the Mining Museum, Doctor of Historical Sciences, e-mail:


The article discusses the features of the physicochemical properties of some silver coins with a denomination of 1 ruble from the period of Nicholas II with characteristic features of minting, selected from the general collection, as well as the specifics of their manufacture, taking into account the processes of melting silver ore. The silver rubles of the Russian Empire of that time retained the fundamental features laid down by the masters of the coinage of Peter the Great. The role of V. P. Smirnov, the minzmeister of the St. Petersburg Mint, who was the last reconstructor of the Nikolaev silver ruble and made an outstanding contribution to the preservation of the Peter I coinage traditions, is shown. Archival data on the features of equipment operation during the production of the last silver rubles were studied. In order to identify the characteristic elements and features of the coins, silver rubles from the largest number of issues were selected for the study. A metallographic study was carried out, the distribution of impurities over the surface of the reverse and obverse of Nikolaev silver coins was studied when determining the Vickers microhardness on Thixomet equipment. The analysis of the chemical composition of the preliminary blank – silver discs was carried out. The novelty of the approach lies in the fact that the analysis of a large volume of microparticles formed during the processing of compounds (including intermetallic ones), which made it possible to determine the composition of inclusions in silver coins, in combination with thermodynamic modeling methods, enables to determine their nature, taking into account the whole variety of thermophysical, hydrodynamic, physical and chemical processes occurring in liquid and solidifying silver alloy. This may be the rationale for improving the technology of minting coins. The influence of impurities on the structure and properties of a silver coin for several authentic samples of 1898, 1899, 1901, 1912 has been established. The change in the content of impurities from obverse to reverse throughout the entire thickness of the silver ruble and blanks was studied, the level of segregation of elements was determined taking into account the hardness of the surface.

keywords Silver ruble, Mint, Minzmeister, Mining Institute, segregation, structural heredity, impurities.

1. Bazhin V. Yu., Telyakov N. М., Aleksandrova Т. А., Gorlenkov D. V. The production of the silver ruble and the participation of the Mining University in the development of the Russia`s monetary business. Journal of Mining Institute. 2019. Vol. 236. pp. 201–209.
2. Smirnov М. I. The first experiments on the upsetting of Russian coins of the 18th century. Sovetskiy kollektsioner. 1991. No. 28. pp. 97–102.
3. Semenov V. Е. Coinage of the Russian Empire. Saint Petersburg : Konrosinform, 2010. p. 130.
4. Strizhko L. S. Metallurgy of gold and silver : textbook for universities. Moscow : MISiS, 2001. 336 p.
5. Money in Russian history. Issues of production, circulation, existence. Issue. 1. Proceedings of the First International Scientific Conference (October 18–19, 2018, St. Petersburg). Saint Petersburg : Goznak, 2018. 280 p.
6. Uzdenikov V. V. Temporary mints of St. Petersburg in the first half of the 18th century. Russian coins of the 18th — early 20th centuries. Essays on numismatics. 3rd edition, revised and enlarged. Moscow, 2004. pp. 207–211.
7. Nartov А. А. Description of coin production with the image of smelting furnaces and working machinary (according to the manuscript of 1779). Moscow, 2014. 40 p.
8. Uzdenikov V. V. Coins of Russia 1700–1917. 3rd edition. Moscow : Collector’sBook, 2004. 497 p.
9. Smirnov М. I. With the sign “S.P.B.”. Essays on the history of the St. Petersburg Mint. 1724–1994. Tolyatti : AvtoVAZbank, 1994. 160 p.
10. Smirnov V. P. Description of Russian medals. Saint Petersburg, 1908. 748 p.
11. Russian State Historical Archive. Archive 570. Register 8. File 170. List 223.
12. Russian State Historical Archive. Archive 570. Register 8. File 170. List 249 overleaf – 251.
13. Russian State Historical Archive. Archive 570. Register 1. File 76. List 661.
14. Russian State Historical Archive. Archive 570. Register 8. File 170. List 325.
15. Russian State Historical Archive. Archive 570. Register 1. File 19. List 9, 25.
16. Russian State Historical Archive. Archive 570. Register 1. File 76. List 530.
17. Russian State Historical Archive. Archive 570. Register 1. File 76. List 552.
18. Russian State Historical Archive. Archive 570. Register 8. File 170. List 359 overleaf.
19. Kazakov A. A.,Zhitinev A. I., Fedorov A. S., Fomina O. V. Prediction of promising compositions of duplex corrosion-resistant steels. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Chernaya metallurgiya. 2020. Vol. 63, No. 3-4. pp. 254–260.
20. Kazakov A. A., Zhitenev A. I., Ishpaev P. A., Fomina O. V., Melnikov P. V. Hot physical simulation of δ-ferrite behavior at production and welding of high-nitrogen corrosion-resistant steels. CIS Iron and Steel Review. 2020. Vol. 19. pp. 48–55. DOI: 10.17580/cisisr.2020.01.10.
21. Naboychenko S. S., Ageev N. G., Doroshkevich А. P., Zhukov V. P., Eliseev Е. I. et al. Processes and devices of non-ferrous metallurgy : textbook for universities. Yekaterinburg : GOU VPO UGTU – UPI, 2005. 700 p.
22. Kazakov A. A., Kazakova E. I., Kur A. A. Assessment of central heterogeneity in slab to forecast centerline segregation in plate steel. CIS Iron and Steel Review. 2018. Vol. 16. pp. 49–52. DOI: 10.17580/cisisr.2018.02.10.
23. Kazakov A. A., Kiselev D. Industrial application of thixomet image analyzer for quantitative description of steel and alloy’s microstructure. Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis. 2016. Vol. 5. pp. 294–301.
24. Spasskiy I. G., Yukht А. I. Finance. Money turnover. Essays on Russian culture of the 18th century. Part 2. Moscow, 1987. pp. 131–151.
25. Van Der Voort G. F. Using the control chart approach to evaluate hardness tester performance. ASTM International. 2019. Vol. 1607. pp. 74–83.
26. Van Der Voort G. F. Measuring the grain size of specimens with nonequiaxed grains. Practical Metallography. 2013. Vol. 50. pp. 239–251.
27. Wannasin J., Schwam D., Wallace J. F. Evaluation of methods for metal cleanliness assessment in die casting. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2007. Vol. 191, Iss. 1-3. pp. 242–246.
28. Gokelma M., Le Brun P., Dang T., Badowski M., Morsgeiser J. et al. Assessment of settling behavior of particles with different shape factors by LiMCA data analysis. Light Metals. 2016. pp. 843–848.
29. Konchus D. A., Sivenkov A. V., Pryakhin E. I. Structural variations on the surface of metallic products at laser marking. CIS Iron and Steel Review. 2021. № 2. pp. 96–101. DOI: 10.17580/cisisr/2021.02.18.
30. Konchus D. A., Sivenkov A. V. The formation of contrasting nanofilms on a metal surface for bar coding. Key Engineering Materials. 2020. Vol. 854. pp. 97–102. DOI: 10.4028/
31. Popova A. N., Sukhomlinov V. S., Mustafaev A. S. Accounting for interelement interferences in atomic emission spectroscopy: A nonlinear theory november. Applied Sciences. 2021. Vol. 11, Iss. 23 pp. 1237 DOI: 10.3390/app112311237.
32. Voloshinova I. V., Afanas’ev V. G., Tesla A. B. Features of training professional personnel for the mining industry in Russia in the first half of the 19th century. Bylye Gody. 2020 Vol. 58, pp. 2505–2513. DOI: 10.13187/BG.2020.4.2505.
33. Vasilyeva N. V., Boikov A. V., Erokhina O. O., Trifonov A. Yu. Automated digitization of pie charts. Journal of Mining Institute. 2021. Vol. 247. pp. 82–87. DOI: 10.31897/PMI.2021.1.9.
34. Alexandrova T. N., Nikolaeva N. V., Lvov V. V., Romashev A. O. Improving the efficiency of processing precious metal ores based on modeling of technological processes. Obogashchenie Rud. 2019. No. 2. pp. 8–13. DOI: 10.17580/or.2019.02.02
35. Boikov A. V., Payor V. A., Savelev R., Kolesnikov A. Synthetic Data Generation for Steel Defect Detection and Classification Using Deep Learning, Symmetry. 2021. Vol. 13, Iss.7. p. 1176. DOI: 10.3390/sym13071176.
36. Aleksandrova T. N., Nikolaeva N. V., Afanasova A., Romashev A. O., Kuznetsov V. Selective Disintegration Justification Based on the Mineralogical and Technological Features of the Polymetallic Ores. Minerals. 2021. Vol. 11, Iss. p. 851. DOI: 10.3390/min11080851.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy