Journals →  Tsvetnye Metally →  2022 →  #1 →  Back

ArticleName Combined method for production of reducing gases and processing galena-containing concentrate
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2022.01.01
ArticleAuthor Gaybullaeva Z. Kh., Asrorov B. I., Nasymov G. T., Sharifov A.

Tajik Technical University named after Academician M. S. Osimi, Dushanbe, Tajikistan:

Z. Kh. Gaybullaeva, Associate professor, Chair for Chemical Production Technology, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, e-mail:
B. I. Asrorov, Applicant for the Chair for Chemical Production Technologies, e-mail:


Dangara State University, Dangara, Tajikistan:
G. T. Nasymov, Head of the Center for Management of International Projects and Accreditation, Candidate of Technical Sciences, e-mail:
A. Sharifov, Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, e-mail:


A combined method for production of reducing gases by gasification of coal and pyrometallurgical processing of galena-containing concentrate is proposed. The coal is preliminarily cleaned from the components accompanying carbon in the reactor, which is heated through the inner walls of the double vessel by the heat of the stream of heated gases of metallurgical production. When coal is heated to 300–350 оC, moisture evaporates from it, CO and CO2 are desorbed and volatile components are released, and when the temperature rises to 500–550 оC, the graphitization of coal begins with the release of resinous substances. As the temperature rises to 700 оC, coke is formed, which is subjected to gasification with water vapor in the ratio C:H2O = 1:1 in a gas generator at a temperature of 1000–1050 оC. The resulting generator gas of equimolar composition H2:CO = 1:1 with a temperature of up to 1050 оC initially heats the reaction mixture from the galena-containing concentrate and air through the reactor wall. Part of the heat is used to obtain water vapor, and at a temperature of 350–380 оC as a reducing gas to obtain crude lead. Oxidation gases of sulphide minerals with a temperature of 1050 оC are used to heat coal in a double-vessel reactor to a temperature of 700 оC, then they give off part of their heat to produce water vapor and, with a temperature of 400 оC, enter the sulfur dioxide oxidation reactor, where the catalytic oxidation of SO2 to sulfuric anhydride, used to produce sulfuric acid, takes place. The remainder of the gas mixture, consisting of inert nitrogen and argon, is separated into individual components by a membrane method. The proposed method is implemented using a waste-free technology: incidentally formed water vapor and condensate, CO2, sulfuric acid and inert gases are used as useful products. Heat supply of the method is realized due to heat exchange between flows of substances within the technological scheme. The method is low-cost and environmentally friendly, emissions into the environment are excluded.

keywords Pyrometallurgy, galena, concentrate, processing, technology, temperature, heat, reducing gas, coal gasification, sulfide oxidation, lead reduction, sulfuric anhydride, sulfuric acid, crude lead

1. Tikhonov B. S. Heavy non-ferrous metals and alloys: handbook. Vol. 1. Moscow : Izdatelstvo TsNIIEItsvetmeta, 2000. 452 p.
2. Habashi F. Extractive Metallurgy Today. Progress and problems. Minerals Engineering. 2000. Vol. 13, Iss. 10-11. pp. 1191.
3. Perillo A., Carminaty A., Garlini G. The KIVCET lead smelter at Portovesme, commissioning and operating results. AIME Annual Meeting. 1988. No. A88-2.
4. Nennes E. O. Flash smelting of lead concentrates. Metall. 1982. Vol. 36. No. 9. pp. 1007–1009.
5. Gonzalez-Dominguez J. A. The Refining of lead by the Betts process. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry. 1991. No. 21. pp. 189–202.
6. Moriya K., Mackey T. S., Prengaman R. D. Lead Smelting and refining – its status and future. Lead-Zinc’90, AIME. 1990. pp. 23–38.
7. Akhmedov М. М., Teymurova E. А. Processing of high iron sulfide concentrates. Baku : ХХI-YNE, 2008. 252 p.
8. Faris N., Ram R., Tardio J., Bhargava S., McMaster S. et al. Application of ferrous pyrometallurgy to the beneficiation of rare earth bearing iron ores. Minerals Engineering. 2017. Vol. 110. pp. 20–30.
9. Shumskiy V. A. Method of processing of lead-containing materials. Patent RF, No. 19714. Applied: 20.12.2006. Published: 15.09.2010. Bulletin No. 9.
10. Mounsey E. N., Piret N. L. A Review of Ausmelt Technology for Lead Smelting. Lead-Zinc 2000: Proceedings of the Lead-Zinc 2000 Symposium Which Was Part of the TMS Fall Extraction & Process Metallurgy Meeting, Pittsburgh, U.S.A., October 22–25. 2000. pp. 149–169.
11. Safarzadeh M. S., Miller J. D. The pirometallurgy of enargite. International Journal Mineral Processing. 2016. Vol. 157, Iss. 10. pp. 103–110.
12. Digonskiy S. V. Theoretical foundations and technologies for the reduction smelting of metals from non-lumped raw materials. Saint-Petersburg : Nauka, 2007. 322 p.
13. Lykolov А. А., Ryss G. М., Borodin I. S. Reduction of iron from sulphide smelting slag by carbon gasification products. Izvestiya vysshikh ucheb nykh zavedeniy. Chernayz metallurgiya. 2014. No. 1. pp. 30–33.
14. Rybenko I. А. Development of theoretical foundations and development of resource-saving technologies for direct reduction of metals using the method and instrumental system of modeling and optimization. Dissertation … of Doctor of Engineering Sciences. Novokuznetsk : FGBOU Sibirsiy gosudarstvenny industrialny universitet, 2018. 327 p.
15. Dorofeenko S. O., Polianczuk E. V. Gasification of pulverized coal in a counter flow moving bed filtration combustion reactor: In search of the optimum. Fuel. 2021. Vol. 291. 120255.
16. Hu Z., Peng Y., Sun F., Chen S., Zhou Y. Thermodynamic eguilibrium simulation on the synthesis gas composition in the context of underground coal gasification. Fuel. 2021. Vol. 293. 120462.
17. Podgorodetskiy G. S., Gorbunov B. G., Sharuda A. K., Dubovkin S. G., Kozlova O. N. Extraction method of metals at gasification of solid fuel in polyfuel gas generator. Patent RF, No. 2644892. Applied: 29.12.2016. Published: 14.02.2018. Bulletin No. 5.
18. Vlasov O. A. Method for processing lead and zinc concentrates. Patent RF, No. 2486267. Applied: 05.06.2012. Published: 27.06.2013. Bulletin No. 18.
19. Polyvyanny I. R. Oxygen and natural gas in lead metallurgy. Alma-Ata : Nauka, 1976. 375 p.
20. Mularski J., Pawlak-Kruczek H., Modlinski N. A review of recent studies of the CFD modelling of coal gasification in entrained flow gasifiers, covering devolatilization, gas-phase reactions, surface reactions, models and kinetics. Fuel. 2020. Vol. 271. 117620. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.117620.
21. Kunaev М. М., Kozhakhmetov S. М., Vanyukov N. V. Fundamentals of the integrated use of raw materials from non-ferrous metallurgy. Alma-Ata : Nauka, 1982. 391 p.
22. Gaybullaeva Z. Kh., Sharifov A., Nasymov G. T. Method for processing galena-containing concentrate with water gas. Patent RT, No. 1068. Applied: 20.08.2019. Published: 13.03.2020.
23. Atroshenko V. I., Alekseev А. М., Zasorin А. P. et. al. Associated nitrogen technology: course. Moscow : Khimiya, 1968. 384 p.
24. Sharifov A., Shodiev G. G., Subkhonov D. К., Boboev Т. S. The use of the coal ash from the Fan-Yagnob deposit as a filler for compositions of gypsum binders. Doklady Akademii nauk Respubliki Tadzhikistan. 2016. Vol. 59. No. 9-10. pp. 413–417.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy