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ArticleName Geotechnology: Key concepts and interrelations
DOI 10.17580/gzh.2021.10.08
ArticleAuthor Rakishev B. R.

Satbayev University, Almaty, Kazakhstan:

B. R. Rakishev, Professor, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan,


In mining theory and practice, the concepts of “field development” and “mineral mining” are still used synonymously. Mineral mining systems are called mineral field development systems. They are often touted as mining technology. These incorrect interpretations of the key concepts of mining have become widespread due to the fact that their formulation did not take into account the relationship of their components and the principles of a systematic approach. To eliminate these negative consequences, the state of the issue is examined from the perspective of a systematic approach. It is shown that the concepts of “mineral field development” and “mineral mining” are not identical, but of a different hierarchical level. By functional purpose, the development of mineral deposits is proposed to be called the exploitation of mineral deposits. Structural diagrams of the systems “mineral exploitation” and “mineral mining system” are given. A new definition of the system of open mining of minerals is given. A new classification of open-pit mining systems has been created. It is shown that the mineral development system is the mining technology environment where the mineral development technology operates. The concepts “mining system” and “mining technology” are of different hierarchical level. Distinguishing features of open-pit mining technologies are highlighted: the continuity of the processes of excavation, loading, movement of rocks and the way they are transported to their destination. Depending on the type, technical characteristics of the used mining and transport equipment and their combination on the basis of the listed classification features, the technologies of open mining of mineral resources are divided into: cyclic mining with direct dumping, cyclic, cyclic–continuous, continuous and combined. The classification of open-pit mining technologies has been created.
The study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2018–2020 in the framework of Target Program 2018/BR05235618: Modernization of Technologies and Practices in the Mining and Processing Industries of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

keywords Mineral exploitation, mineral mining, mining system, mining technologies, systematic approach

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