Journals →  Chernye Metally →  2020 →  #7 →  Back

Ecology and Environment Protection
ArticleName Membrane treatment of water containing spent cooling fluids
ArticleAuthor I. G. Shaikhiev, V. O. Dryakhlov, D. D. Fazullin

Kazan National Research Technological University (Kazan, Russia):

I. G. Shaikhiev, Dr. Eng., Prof., Head of the Engineering Ecology Dept., E-mail:
V. O. Dryakhlov, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., Engineering Ecology Dept., E-mail:


Kazan (Privolzhskiy) Federal University, Naberezhnye Chelny Institute (Affiliate) (Naberezhnye Chelny, Russia):
D. D. Fazullin, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., Dept. of Chemistry and Ecology., E-mail:


The possibility for purification of spent emulsions of cooling fluids (coolant) formed during the processing of steels from alloyed and ferrous steels using membrane methods has been investigated. The main physicochemical and chemical methods for treatment of spent coolant are briefly reviewed: coagulation and flocculation, flotation, adsorption, oxidation using various oxidizing agents. The model emulsion based on I-20A oil was cleaned using polyacrylonitrile membranes (PAN) with a pore size of 2; 5 and 10 nm. Graphical dependences of productivity on the process time and pore size of PAN membranes are given and the values of chemical oxygen consumption (COD) are determined. Based on experiments with model emulsions, studies were conducted on the membrane separation of spent Inkam-1 brand coolant used in the metalworking process at PJSC KAMAZ using ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis processes. It was shown that during membrane purification of the spent coolant emulsion solution, reverse osmosis filtrate meets the regulatory requirements for water to be discharged into the sewage system. It was determined that in addition to the organic component in the spent coolant, heavy metal ions and anions are effectively retained during reverse osmosis. It was revealed that the selectivity of reverse osmosis for various ions mainly coincides with a range of increasing in their hydration energy: and with an increase in the metal ion charge. The use of a concentrate of spent coolant emulsion as a basis for creating an inhibitory composition designed to inhibit corrosion of 20 steel against the action of formation waters generated during oil production was proposed.

keywords Metalworking, spent cooling fluids, emulsions, purification, membranes, ultrafi ltration, reverse osmosis

1. Gajrani K. K., Sankar M. R. Past and current status of eco-friendly vegetable oil based metal cutting fluids. Materials Today Proceedings. 2017. Vol. 4, Iss. 2. pp. 3786–3795.
2. Benedicto E., Carou D., Rubio E. M. Technical, economic and environmental review of the lubrication cooling systems used in machining processes. Procedia Engineering. 2017. Vol. 184. pp. 99–116.
3. Da Silva Santos E., De Paula Camargo A. P., De Faria E. A., De Oliveira Junior F. A. F., Alves S. M. et al. The lubricity analysis of cutting fluid emulsions. Materials Research. 2017. Vol. 20. pp. 651–656.
4. Inyusheva А. А., Smirnova N. N., Fridland S. V. Analysis of methods for protection of cutting fl uids against microbial destruction. Vestnik tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2018. Vol. 21. No. 1. pp. 160–163.
5. Lee C.-M., Choi Y.-H., Ha J.-H., Woo W.-S. Eco-friendly technology for recycling of cutting fluids and metal chips: A review. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology. 2017. Vol. 4. pp. 457–468.
6. Widodo S., Ariono D., Khoiruddin K., Hakim A. N., Wenten I. G. Recent advances in waste lube oils processing technologies. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy. 2018. Vol. 37. No. 6. pp. 1867–1881.
7. Demirbas E., Kobya M. Operating cost and treatment of metalworking fluid wastewater by chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation processes. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 2017. Vol. 105. pp. 79–90.
8. Shahriari T., Karbassi A. R., Reyhani M. Treatment of oil refinery wastewater by electrocoagulation–flocculation (Case Study: Shazand Oil Refinery of Arak). International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2019. Vol. 16, Iss. 8. pp. 4159–4166.
9. Lobacheva G. К., Guchanova А. I., Platonov М. Yu., Smirnov А. А., Chadov О. P. et. al. Synthesis and the use of flocculants for purification of industrial effluents containing coolant. Vestnik VolGU. 2011. No. 5. pp. 145–147.
10. Saththasivam J., Loganathan K., Sarp S. An overview of oil–water separation using gas flotation systems. Chemosphere. 2016. Vol. 144. pp. 671–680.
11. Kolesnikov V. A., Ilyin V. I., Kolesnikov A. V. Electroflotation in wastewater treatment from oil products, dyes, surfactants, ligands, and biological pollutants: A review. Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering. 2019. Vol. 53, Iss. 2. pp. 251–273.
12. An C., Huang G., Yao Y., Zhao S. Emerging usage of electrocoagulation technology for oil removal from wastewater: A review. Science of The Total Environment. 2017. Vol. 579. pp. 537–556.
13. Politayeva N. A., Smyatskaya Y. A., Slugin V. V. Wastewater cleaning in a composite fi lter after magnetic treatment. Comptes Rendus de L’Academie Bulgare des Sciences. 2018. Vol. 71. No. 6. pp. 766–771.
14. Pintor A. M. A., Vilar V. J. P., Botelho C. M. S., Boaventura R. A. R. Oil and grease removal from wastewaters: Sorption treatment as an alternative to state-of-the-art technologies. A critical review. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2016. Vol. 297. pp. 229–255.
15. Alekseeva А. А., Stepanova S. V. Kinetics of oil sorption by the material based on leaf litter. Bezopasnost v tekhnosfere. 2018. No. 2. pp. 10–14.
16. Sverguzova S. V., Sapronova Zh. А., Shaikhiev I. G., Valiev R. R. Determination of the mineralogical composition and sorption characteristics for oil products of waste processing gabbro-diabase of the Abzakovo deposit. Voda: khimiya i ekologiya. 2018. No. 10-12. pp. 126–132.
17. Ma S., Kim K., Huh J., Kim D. E., Lee S., Hong Y. Regeneration and purification of water-soluble cutting fluid through ozone treatment using an air dielectric barrier discharge. Separation and Purification Technology. 2018. Vol. 199. pp. 289–297.
18. Bautista P., Mohedano A. F., Casas J. A., Zazo J. A., Rodriguez J. J. An overview of the application of Fenton oxidation to industrial wastewaters treatment. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 2008. Vol. 83. No. 10. pp. 1323–1338.
19. Jamalludin M. R., Hubadillah S. K., Harun Z., Othman M. H. D., Yunos M. Z. Novel superhydrophobic and superoleophilic sugarcane green ceramic hollow fibre membrane as hybrid oil sorbent-separator of real oil and water mixture. Materials Letters. 2019. Vol. 240. pp. 136–139.
20. Yu L., Kanezashi M., Nagasawa H., Tsuru T. Phase inversion/sintering-induced porous ceramic microsheet membranes for highquality separation of oily wastewater. Journal of Membrane Science. 2020. Vol. 595. 117477.
21. Zhu L., Chen M., Dong Y., Tang C.Y., Huang A. et al. A low-cost mullite-titania composite ceramic hollow fiber microfiltration membrane for highly efficient separation of oil-in-water emulsion. Water Research. 2016. Vol. 90. pp. 277–285.
22. Fazullin D. D., Mavrin G. V., Shaikhiev I. G. The influence of the hydrogen index and concentration of nonionic surfactants on inhibitory properties of the spent Inkam-1 emulsion concentrate. Vestnik tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2015. Vol. 18. No. 18. pp. 229–231.
23. Fazullin D. D., Mavrin G. V., Shaikhiev I. G. Investigation of the properties and composition of a concentrate of spent Inkam-1 emulsion as a corrosion inhibitor. Petroleum Chemistry. 2017. Vol. 57, Iss. 8. pp. 728–733.
24. GOST 9.506–87. United system of corrosion and ageing protection. Corrosion inhibitors of metals in water-petroleum media. Methods of protective ability evaluation. Introduced: 01.07.1988.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy