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Casting and Foundry Production
ArticleName Selection of exothermic carbon-containing additives for regulating the cooling mode of iron castings
ArticleAuthor N. A. Kidalov, N. I. Gabelchenko, A. A. Belov, A. I. Savchenko

Volgograd State Technical University (Volgograd, Russia):

N. I. Kidalov, Dr. Eng., Prof., Head of Dept. “Machines and Technology for Foundry Production”
N. I. Gabelchenko, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof.
A.A. Belov, Post-graduate student
A. I. Savchenko, Applicant
E-mail (common):


N. Yu. Gulakov, head of the technological bureau of the blast-furnace shop of JSC EVRAZ NTMK, M. V. Polovets, engineer-technologist of the technical department of JSC EVRAZ NTMK, A. D. Martyukov, head of the industrial technology department of JSC EVRAZ NTMK participated in the preparation of the article.


The studies are devoted to the selection of carbon-containing additives introduced into the composition of molding sand-clay mixtures to control the cooling rate of castings in the mold due to their destruction at various temperatures and the time of heating the mold. The analysis of the properties of the following additives is presented: foundry coal coke, coal-tar electrode pitch, M-100 heating oil, M-200 wood flour, wastes of contact cleaning of oils. To study exothermic carbon-containing additives, the Q-1500D derivatograph from MOM, Hungary was used, with which mass changes (thermogravimetric analysis) and processes accompanied by heat generation or absorption (differential thermal analysis) were recorded simultaneously with heating to temperatures of their destruction and higher. Exothermic carbon-containing additives were heated to temperatures comparable to the ones of the facing layer of the mold upon contact with molten iron during pouring. In view of the different speed of mold heating during casting of shaped castings, studies of exothermic carbon-containing additives were carried out at different heating rates: 2.5; 5; 10, 20 °C/min. This allowed to analyze the dynamics of changes in mass loss and thermal effect. To prevent the formation of gas defects in the casting, the gas generating ability of additives during heating to 1250 °C was determined according to GOST 23409.12–78. As a result of comparative studies, an additive was selected combining properties that contribute to the slowdown in the rate of crystallization and cooling of cast iron castings in the sand-clay mold. It is shown that the additive combining the maximum ability to lose the mass and generate the heat at the same time the minimum gas generating ability is M-100 fuel oil. In the course of the work, experimental equipment was designed and manufactured, which allows both experimental and control castings to be poured. To regulate the cooling rate, it was decided to introduce the studied exothermic carboncontaining additive, M-100 heating oil, into the facing molding mixture, which, when ignited, heats the mold, slowing down the solidification process of the cast iron. It is shown that the use of controlled cooling can significantly increase the tensile strength of cast iron without introducing additional alloying elements into its composition. 

keywords Cast iron, tensile strength, cooling rate, exothermic carboncontaining additives, eutectic transformation, casting st furnace process, iron ore raw materials, three-component fuel complex, coke quality

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