Journals →  CIS Iron and Steel Review →  2019 →  #2 →  Back

Powder Metallurgy and Additive Technologies
ArticleName Anisotropy of the mechanical properties of austenitic steel products obtained by selective laser melting
DOI 10.17580/cisisr.2019.02.13
ArticleAuthor M. G. Isaenkova, Yu. A. Perlovich, A. E. Rubanov, A. V. Yudin

National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow, Russia:

M. G. Isaenkova, Dr. Phys.-Math., Prof., e-mail:
Yu. A.Perlovich, Dr. Phys.-Math., Prof., Leading Scientific Researcher
A. E. Rubanov, Post-graduate, e-mail:
A. V. Yudin, Post-graduate


This research looked at specimens made of austenitic steel 316L by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and designed for tensile testing in different directions (in relation to the growth direction during printing). A significant anisotropy of mechanical properties was found as a result of mechanical testing: anisotropy of the yield strength is 1.13; tensile strength — 1.10; elongation — 1.84. X-ray analysis of the texture helped understand how the crystallographic texture of the specimens changed under elongation in different directions. On the basis of strain-induced re-orientation of grains it was established that the active deformation mechanism included crystallographic slip of type {111}<110>. Depending on the orientation of stress to the internal crystallographic axes, different texture components form as a result of elongation leading to the observed anisotropy of mechanical properties. To understand how changes in the crystallographic texture influence the mechanical properties of SLM products, a model has been developed for simulating anisotropy of mechanical properties on the basis of texture analysis data using DAMASK software. The input data include grain orientation, active deformation mechanism and parameters of the phenomenological law describing hardening of slip systems. A good correlation was found between the simulation data and the results of elongation obtained for experimental specimens printed at different orientation to the growth direction, in terms of both the yield strength anisotropy and the strain-induced changes in the crystallographic texture. Thus, knowing the difference in the crystallographic texture, the results of mechanical testing of standard shape specimens can be used to define the properties of specimens of a different shape.

keywords Selective laser melting, austenitic steel, crystallographic texture, mechanical properties, anisotropy, modeling, DAMASK

1. Guo N., Leu M. C. Additive manufacturing: technology, applications and research needs. Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering. 2013. No. 8. pp. 215–243.
2. Masaylo D. V., Popovich A. A., Orlov A. V., Gyulikhandanov E. L. Investigation of the structure and mechanical characteristics of specimens made by laser cladding and selective laser melting processes of spheroidized iron based powder. Chernye Metally. 2019. No. 4. pp. 73–77.
3. Petrovsky P. V., Cheverikin V. V., Sokolov P. Yu., Davidenko A. A. Dependence of the structure and properties of 03Kh-16N15M3 steel on the geometry of cellular structures obtained by the selective laser melting method. Chernye Metally. 2019. No. 3. pp. 49–53.
4. Choo H., Sham K.-L., John B., Austin Ng. et al. Effect of laser power on defect, texture, and microstructure of a laser powder bed fusion processed 316L stainless steel. Materials & Design. 2019. No. 164. pp 1–12.
5. Alnajjar M., Christien F., Wolski K., Bosch C. Evidence of austenite by-passing in a stainless steel obtained from laser melting additive manufacturing. Additive Manufacturing. 2019. No. 25. pp. 187–195
6. Perclovich Yu. A., Isaenkova M. G., Dobrokhotov P. L, Rubanov A. E., Yudin A. V., Tretyako E. V. Nonuniformity of
the Crystallographic Texture and the Mechanical Properties of the Austenitic Steel 316L Plates Formed by Selective Laser Melting of a Powder. Russian Metallurgy (Metally). 2019. No 1. pp. 42–47.
7. Isaenkova M. G., Perlovich Yu. A., Yudin A. V., Rubanov A. E. Formation of crystallographic texture in samples with different geometry from VT1-0 alloy, obtained by selective laser melting powder method. Tsvetnye Metally. 2018. No. 12. pp. 63–68.
8. Bahl S., Mishra S., Yazar K. U., Kola I. R. et al. Non-equilibrium microstructure, crystallographic texture and morphological texture synergistically result in unusual mechanical properties of 3D printed 316L stainless steel. Additive Manufacturing. 2019. No. 28. pp. 65–77.
9. Deev A. A., Kuznetcov P. A., Petrov S. N. Anisotropy of mechanical properties and its correlation with the structure of the stainless steel 316L produced by the SLM method. Physics Procedia. 2016. No. 83. pp. 789–769.
10. Kunze K., Etter T., Grässlin J., Shklover V. Texture, anisotropy in microstructure and mechanical properties of IN738LC alloy processed by selective laser melting (SLM). Materials Science & Engineering A. 2015. No. 620. pp. 213–222.
11. Yudin A. V., Beregovsky V. V., Tretyakov E. V., Zhirnova J. E., Burmistrov M. A. Technological features manufacture samples of stainless steel 316L by Selective Laser Melting on the machine Melt Master3D-550. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2017. Vol. 218. No 1. pp. 12–22.
12. Perlovich Y., Isaenkova M., Fesenko V. Modern methods of experimental construction of texture complete direct pole figures by using X-ray data. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2016. No. 130. pp. 12–55.
13. DAMASK — the Düsseldorf Advanced Material Simulation Kit:
14. MTEX v. 5.0.1
15. Roters F., Diehl M., Shanthraj P., Eisenlohr P. et al. DAMASK — The Düsseldorf Advanced Material Simulation Kit for modeling multi-physics crystal plasticity, thermal, and damage phenomena from the single crystal up to the component scale. Computational Materials Science. 2019. No. 158. pp. 420–478.
16. Calnan E. A., Clews C. J. B. Deformation textures in face-centered cubic metals. London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science. 1950. No. 41(7). pp.1085–1100.
17. Vishnyakov Ya. D., Babareko A. A., Vladimirov S. A. et al. The theory of texture forming in metals and alloys. Moscow : Nauka, 1979. 344 p.

Full content Anisotropy of the mechanical properties of austenitic steel products obtained by selective laser melting