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ArticleName Understanding the process of producing ferrotitanium in molten fluoride salts through electrolysis
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2019.12.06
ArticleAuthor Lysenko A. P., Kondratieva D. S., Kondratiev S. V., Nalivayko A. Yu.

National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow, Russia:

A. P. Lysenko, Professor at the Department of Non-Ferrous Metals and Gold, Candidate of Technical Sciences, e-mail:
D. S. Kondratieva, Postgraduate Student at the Department of Non-Ferrous Metals and Gold, e-mail:
A. Yu. Nalivayko, Senior Lecturer at the Department of Non-Ferrous Metals and Gold, Candidate of Technical Sciences, e-mail:


ROMEKS LLC, Moscow, Russia:

S. V. Kondratiev, General Director, e-mail:


Ferroalloys are the key component involved in the production of special application steels and alloys. Ferrotitanium is one of the most important ferroalloys. This paper describes the results of a study that looked at ferrotitanium enriched in molten fluoride salts. This process is based on electrochemical reduction of titanium from titanium dioxide contained in rutile concentrate. Titanium was extracted on a cathode alloy — the FTi70 grade of ferrotitanium. The same method can be used to produce ferrotitanium of a pre-defined composition. In this case low-grade ferrotitanium with added iron turnings should be used as cathode. Graphite anodes and Na3AlF6 or K2TiF6 were used for electrolyte in the considered method. The authors of this paper determined the maximum solubility of rutile concentrate in Na3AlF6 (the cryolite ratio of 2.7) and K2TiF6 at the temperature of 1,200 oC, as well as the electrolyte density associated with the maximum concentration of rutile concentrate at 1,200 oC. For the purposes of this research, a laboratory-scale electrochemical cell was designed as the most accurate design copy of a full-scale cell. The lab cell consisted of a graphite crucible with an alundum insert enclosed in a steel casing, a horizontal graphite anode and a source of DC current. The paper describes a relationship between voltage and the electrolysis time in the following system: rutile concentrate — Na3AlF6 (K2TiF6), and defines components of the cell voltage. On the basis of these findings, the FTi70 grade of ferrotitanium was enriched with titanium and its concentration increased from 68–69 to 74–75 wt. %. This paper describes the first stage in the development of a pilot enrichment process for producing ferrotitanium by electrolysis in molten fluoride salts.
This research was funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation as part of the Grant Agreement No. 14.578.21.0255 dated 26th September 2017 (Agreement ID: RFMEFI57817X0255).

keywords Ferrotitanium, rutile concentrate, electrolysis, cryolite, potassium hexafluorotitanate, electrolysis, ferroalloys

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