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Metal science and metallography
ArticleName Enhancing of standard practice for extreme value analysis to evaluate the nature of large non-metallic inclusions in superduty stells
ArticleAuthor A. A. Kazakov, A. I. Zhitenev, M. A. Salynova

St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (St. Petersburg, Russia):

A. A. Kazakov, Dr. Eng., Prof., E-mail:
A. I. Zhitenev, Engineer, E-mail:
M. A. Salynova, Engineer


Practice for extreme value analysis realized in ASTM E 2283 has been discussed on the examples for assessing the nonmetallic inclusions in superduty steels. An original interpretation of the measurement results obtained according to ASTM E 2283 standard has been proposed, which allows extending the limits of applicability of this standard to exogenous inclusions. It has been shown that the procedures of ASTM E 2283 can be used to identify random single exogenous inclusions among all the detected nonmetallic inclusions, as well as to predict the size of the maximum possible exogenous inclusions if the latter have a systemic source of penetration into the melt and are described by the corresponding Gumbel distribution. It has been found that the modern level of secondary metallurgy enables to obtain steels with low endogenous nonmetallic impurity rating, however, gross irregularities of the casting technology can lead to coarse exogenous nonmetallic inclusions of the fi nished metal.

keywords Superduty steel, single large non-metallic inclusions, indigenous, exogenous, metallographic assessment, extreme value analysis

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