Journals →  Chernye Metally →  2019 →  #4 →  Back

Coating application and corrosion resistance
ArticleName Surface modification by plastic deformation with coating application
ArticleAuthor L. S. Belevskiy, E. V. Gubarev, Yu. Yu. Efimova

Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University (Magnitogorsk, Russia):

L. S. Belevskiy, Dr. Eng., Prof., Chair of Engineering and Operation of Metallurgical Equipment, e-mail:
E. V. Gubarev, Assistant, Chair of Physics, e-mail:
Yu. Yu. Efimova, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., Chair of technology of materials processing, e-mail:


It was considered the treatment of metal surfaces and the application of functional coatings with a flexible tool - rotating wire brushes. This process, called friction cladding, is realized on metal cutting machines with using of simple rigging or manual angle grinders. Experiments have been conducted on the applying of perforator peen for plastic deformation of the surface layer with subsequent application of functional coatings. Optical microscopes Epikvant (Carl Zeiss, Germany), Epityp-2 (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany), IM7000 (Meiji Techno) and REM scanning microscope JSM-6490 LV (Jeol, Japan) were used for the metallographic studies. Surface microtopography studies were carried out on the optical profilometer “Contour GT K” 1 (Bruker, Germany). The minimal thickness of the coatings the resulting friction cladding was 10-12 microns, the maximum thickness was 40-45 microns. Dimensions of crystallites of aluminum and brass coatings do not exceed 100 nm. The microhardness of the coating (~ 6800 MPa) exceeds the microhardness of the steel basis three times. It is revealed that for strengthening and nanostructuring of the surface layer, it is expedient to use sectional brushes that have not only a frictional effect, but also an impact. Microanalysis has shown that in the microstructure of the surface layer, deformation bands consisting of elongated ferrite grains are formed with the formation of fragments up to 0.13 μm in size. Such a layer can be conditionally atributed to an amorphous or nanostructured layer. In all modes of processing by peen, hardening is observed on the surface of the specimens with respect to the base metal from 42 to 83%. The deepness, of the hardened layer is from 200 to 350 μm. The considered and studied technologies of surface modification can find practical application for increasing the service characteristics of metallurgical and other technological equipment.

keywords Friction coating, flexible tool, peen, nanostructure, texture, microtopography, mill roll

1. Chukin M. V., Polyakova M. A., Gulin A. E. Influence of hybrid plastic deformation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of carbon-steel wire. Steel in Translation. 2016. Vol. 46. No. 8. pp. 548–551.
2. Polyakova М., Calliari I., Gulin A. Effect of microstructure and mechanical properties formation of medium carbon steel wire through continuous combined deformation. Key Engineering Materials. 2016. Vol. 716. pp. 201–207.
3. Panin V. E., Sergeev V. P., Panin А. V. Nanostructuring of the surface layers of structural materials and application of nanostructured coatings. Tomsk: Izdatelstvo TPU, 2008. 276 p.
4. Zhetesova G. S., Zhukova А. V., Zhunusnekov D. S., Pleshakova Е. А. Technology for deposition of nanostructured multifunctional coatings on mining equipment parts. Mezhdunarodny zhurnal eksperimentalnogo obrazovaniya. 2012. No. 10. pp. 36–39.
5. Li W. L., Tao N. R., Lu K. Fabrication of a gradient nanomicrostructuredsurface layer on bulk copper by means of a surface mechanical grinding treatment. Scr. Mater. 2008. Vol. 59. pp. 546–549.
6. Levantsevich M. A., Maksimenko N. N. Improving the performance characteristics of parts through surface modification by cladding using a flexible tool. Uprochnyayushchie tekhnologii i pokrytiya. 2015. No. 10. pp. 16–20.
7. Makarov A. V., Savrai R. A., Gorkunov E. S., Yurovskikh A. S., Malygina I. Yu., Davydova N. A. Structure, mechanical characteristics, and deformation and fractures of quenched structural steel under static and cyclic loading after combined strain-heat nanostructuring treatment. Physical Mesomechanics. 2015. Vol. 18, No. 1. pp. 43–57.
8. Gerasimova A. A., Radyuk A. G. The improvement of the surface quality of workpieces by coating. CIS Iron and Steel Review. 2014. Iss. 9. pp. 33–35.
9. Kuznetsov V. P., Makarov A. V., Psakhie S. G., Savrai R. A., Malygina I. Yu., Davydova N. A. Tribological aspects in nanostructuring burnishing of structural steels. Physical Mesomechanics. 2014. Vol. 17, No. 4. pp. 250–264.
10. Belevsky L. S., Belevskaya I. V., Efimova Yu. Yu. Friction nanostructuring treatment of metal surfaces and application of functional coatings using flexible tools. Poroshkovaya metallurgiya i funktsionalnye pokrytiya. 2014. No. 1. pp. 70–76.
11. Belevsky L. S. Plastic deformation of the surface layer and formation of the coating using a flexible tool. Magnitogorsk: Litsey RAN, 1996. 231 p.
12. Belevskaya I. V., Belevsky L. S., Gubarev E. V., Efimova Yu. Yu. Investigation of the structure, crystallographic texture, microtopography of the surface of functional coatings using a flexible tool, and some areas of their application. Part 1. Structure, crystallographic texture and microtopography of the surface of copper and brass coatings applied by a flexible tool on a steel base. Izvestiya vuzov. Poroshkovaya metallurgiya. 2017. No. 4. pp. 62–70.
13. Zavalishin A. N., Smirnov О. М., Tulupov S. А. Surface modification of metal products using coatings. Moscow: Orbita-М, 2012. 336 p.
14. Koptseva N. V., Efimova Yu. Yu., Baryshnikov М. P., Nikitenko О. А. Formation of the structure and mechanical properties of carbon structural steel in the process of nanostructuring by the equalchannel angular pressing method. Deformatsiya i razrushenie materialov. 2011. No. 7. pp. 11–17.
15. Koptseva N. V., Chukin M. V., Nikitenko O. A. Use of the Thixomet PRO software for quantitative analysis of the ultrafine-grain structure of low-and medium-carbon steels subjected to equal channel angular pressing. Metal Science and Heat Treatment. 2012. Vol. 54, No. 7–8. pp. 387–392.
16. GOST R ISO 25178-2-2014. Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS). Surface texture. Profile method. Part 2: Terms, definitions and surface texture parameters. Introduced: 01.01.2016.
17. Qia Q., Lia T., Scotta P. J., Jianga X. A correlation study of areal surface texture parameters on some typical machined surfaces. Procedia CIRP 27. 2015. pp. 149–154.
18. Marteau J., Paulin C., Bigerelle M. The use of multiscale transfer functions for understanding the impact of successive mechanical treatments on surface topography. Tribology International. 2017. Vol. 114. pp. 429–435.
19. Bigerelle M., Marteau J., Blateyron F. Assessing the discriminating power of roughness parameters using a roughness databank. Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, 2017. Vol. 5, Iss. 2. p. 025002.
20. Bartkowiak T., Berglund J., Brown C. A. Establishing functional correlations between multiscale areal curvature and coefficient of friction for machined surfaces. Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. 2018. Vol. 6, Nо. 3. p. 034002.
21. Thomas T. R. Roughness and function. Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. 2014. Vol. 2, Nо. 1. p. 014001.
22. Brown C. A., Hansen H. N., Jiang X. J., Blateyron F., Berglund J., Senin N., Bartkowiak T., Dixon, B., Le Goïc G., Quinsat Y., Stemp W. J., Thompson M. K., Ungar P. S., Zahouani E. H. Multiscale analyses and characterizations of surface topographies. CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology. 2018. Vol. 67, No. 2. pp. 839–862.
23. Cousseau T., Acero J. S. R., Sinatora A. Tribological response of fresh and used engine oils: the effect of surface texturing, roughness and fuel type. Tribology International. 2016. Vol. 100. pp. 60–69.
24. Poon C. Y., Sayles R. S. The classification of rough surface contacts in relation to tribology. J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. D. 1992. Vol. 25, No. IA. pp. A249–A256.
25. Khvorostukhin L. А., Shishkin S. V., Kovalev А. P., Ishmakov R. А. Increasing the bearing capacity of machine parts by surface hardening. Moscow: Mashinostroenie. 1988. 144 p.
26. Parts surface engineering. Team of authors. Edited by Suslov А. G. Moscow: Mashinostroenie. 2008. 320 p.
27. Kudryavtsev I. V., Naumchenkov N. Е., Savina N. М. Fatigue of large machine parts. Moscow: Mashinostroenie. 1981. 240 p.
28. Belevsky L. S., Belevskaya I. V., Efimova Yu. Yu. Investigation of the process of dynamic work hardening by dies. Vestnik Magnitogorskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta im. G. I. Nosova. 2016. Vol. 14, No. 2. pp. 63–68.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy